Farming - Rationale And Scope
and Diniesh Kumar1
of Fisheries, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
the economy is mainly based on the field of agriculture and software
development in the area of Information Technology. For achieving
rapid progress in rural area, our strategy must focus on; conserving
natural resources, enhancing efficient use of resources, increasing
productivity and profitability and improving quality and
competitiveness through reduced unit cost of production.
Water is emerging
as international challenge and its most efficient management as well
as recycling has been given high priority in the plan of formulation.
Recycling of crop residue as well as agricultural by products
inclusion of nitrogen fixing legumes in rotation, bio fertilizers,
vermicultres, agro forestry, nutrient solublising micro-organisms,
efficient nutrient up taking plant varieties etc. are being
strategies in the research mandate. Improved efficiency of farm
machinery, agro- input and resource conservation technologies of
minimum tillage are being researched to minimize the cost of
Fish Farming is one of the best examples of mixed farming. This type
of farming practices in different forms mostly in the East and South
East Asian countries is one of the important ecological balanced
sustainable technologies. The technology involves a combination of
fish polyculture integrated with crop or live stock production. On
farm waste recycling, an important component of integrated fish
farming is highly advantageous to the farmers as it improves the
economy of production and decrease the adverse environmental impact
farming refers to the simultaneous culture of fish or shell fish
along with other culture systems. It may also be defined as the
sequential linkage between two or more culture practices. Generally
integrated farming means the production or culture of two or more
farming practices but when fish becomes its major component it is
called as integrated fish farming. Fish culture can be integrated
with several systems for efficient resource utilisation.
The integration of
aquaculture with livestock or crop farming provides quality protein
food, resource utilisation, recycling of farm waste, employment
generation and economic development. Integrated fish farming is well
developed culture practice in China followed by Hungary, Germany and
Malaysia. Our country, India, is organic-based and derives inputs
from agriculture and animal husbandry. The integrated fish farming is
accepted as a sustainable form of aquaculture. For integration we can
use recycled effluents from agro-based industries as well as food
farming serves as a model of sustainable food production by following
The waste products
of one biological system serve as nutrients for a second biological
The integration of
fish and plants results in a polyculture that increases diversity
and yields multiple products.
Water is re-used
through biological filtration and recirculation.
production provides access to healthy foods and enhances the local
The integrated fish
farming includes the
of trapping solar energy,
of organic material by primary producers(autotrophs),
utilisation by phagotrophs,
of autotrophs & phagotrophs by saprotrophs,
of nutrients for autotrophs.
OF INTEGRATED FISH FARMING
waste utilisation from different culture practice for fish
reduces the additional cost for supplementary feeding as well as
is an artificial balanced ecosystem where there is no waste.
provides more employment avenues.
reduces the input and increases output and economic efficiency.
integrated fish farming provides fish along with meat (chicken,
duck, beef, pork etc.), milk, vegetables, fruits, eggs, grains,
fodder, mushroom etc.
practice has potential to increase the production and socio-economic
status of weaker section of our society.
OF INTEGRATED FISH FARMING
the integrated fish farming is of two types
Agri-based fish farming
Live-stock fish farming
fish-cum live-stock farming is realised as innovation for recycling
of organic wastes as well as production of high class protein at low
Agri-based fish farming
Paddy —cum-fish culture
In India, this farming is practised in the states of Bihar, West
Bengal, Orissa and Assam where enough water is present in the paddy
fields. The paddy fields retain water for 3-8 months in a year. The
interest in this practice has declined in recent years due to the use
of pesticides to protect high yielding varieties of paddy.
This practice can be
done in following types of paddy plots-
paddy grows in the middle.
Central pond type —
paddy growing area is on the perimeter.
Lateral trench system- trenches
are provided on either one or both sides of the moderately sloping
The variety of rice
used in this culture is Panidhan, Jalmagna, CR26077, Tulsi etc. while
the fish spp. are Indian major carps, Channa
spp, Oreochromis mossambicus, Clarias batrachus, Anabas testudineus,
carp, grass carp, common carp. The total production in such practice
is approximately 90 quintal from 2 paddy crops while the fish
production is about 1000 kg from 1 ha.
horticulture-cum-fish farming system includes the culture of fruits,
vegetables and flowers on the embankment of the pond. The fruits and
vegetables contain various nutritive elements and the Indian Council
of Medical Research has recommended 85g of fruits and 300g of
vegetables to consume daily. For horticulture crop production the
inner and outer dykes of the pond and adjoining areas are used. The
selection of plant is the main criteria for the success of this
system. The plant should be dwarf, seasonal, evergreen, remunerative
and less shady. The fruit crops which can be used are Mango, Banana,
Papaya, Coconut, Lime etc. and the vegetables like Brinjal,
Tomato,Cucumber,Gourds, Chilli,Carrot, Raddish, Turnip, Spinach,
Peas, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Ladies finger can be grown according to
their season throughout the year. The flower plantation on the
embankment is also useful. We can use the plants like Rose, Jasmine,
Gladiolus, Marigold and Chrysanthemum etc. which provides additional
income to the farmer and beauty to the farm. This system provides
20-25% more return in comparison to aquaculture alone.
agri-based fish farming includes the mushroom fish system,
sericulture-fish system, fodder crop integration etc. Pond bundhs may
also used for growing pulses and oil seed crops. Aquatic cash crop
like Makhana (Euryale
integration can also be done along with air-breathing or carnivorous
This system utilises
poultry droppings of fully built- up poultry litter for fish culture.
The fish production obtained is about 5000 kg/ha/yr. with 1250 kg
chicken meat and 70000 no. of eggs. Approximately 500-600 no. of
birds is reared in a 1 ha pond. The Rhode Island or Leghorn variety
birds are more preferred over others. They require 0.3-0.4 square
meterspace/bird. Hoppers are used to feed them and to minimise feed
wastage. The poultry birds (layers) are fed with starter, grower, and
brooder feed according to their age. In India it is practised in
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Kerala, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Orissa, and Tamilnadu.
The duck are
commonly called as biologicals aerator. They are reared on the dyke
of the pond in a low-cost house. This farming is practised in
Tamilnadu, Assam, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tripura, Orissa, Karnataka,
Kerala and Uttar Pradesh. The 'Indian runner' and 'Khaki
campbell' varieties are found more suitable in this culture. About
300 no. of ducklings (some spp. are reared 450-500 in no.) are reared
to fertilize the 1 ha. pond. The duck not only act as live aerator by
splashing water with their webbed feet but also control the aquatic
weed (Lemna,Azolla etc.), aquatic insects, molluscs, tadpoles etc.
Each duckling require about 0.3-0.5 square meter area as living
space. The total production from such type of culture is about
3500-5000 kg fish, 18000-18500 eggs and 600 kg of duck meat. The duck
droppings are used as manure for primary production.
Pig-cum –Fish culture
This system has
certain advantages over others. The 30-35 pig's waste may produce 1
tonn of Ammonium Sulphate and 40-45 pigs are adequate to fertilize 1
ha water area under polyculture. Each pig requires about 3-4 sq.m
floor space. This system of integration is very common in China,
Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Hungary and some European
countries. The White Yorkshire, Hampshire and Landrace are the
popular breed of pig for integration with fish. Pigs need clean
housing which should provide adequate protection from adverse
climates. The pigs are fed on pig mash which is made up of rice bran,
rice polish, wheat-bran, broken maize, ground-nut oil cake, fish-
meal mineral mixture, salt etc. The spoiled vegetables can also be
mixed in it. This system provides about 3000-4000 kg/ha/yr fish, 4500
kg/yr pig meat and 800 no. of piglets every year.
It is a common
practice all-over the world. The cow excreta is most abundant in
terms of availability and a healthy cow may excrete over 4000-5000kg
dung and 3500-4000 litre urine on an annual basis. The BOD of cow
manure is lower than other livestock manure. About 5-6 cows can
provide adequate manure for 1 ha pond in addition to 9000 kg milk and
about 3000-4000 kg of fish annually. Cow-shed should be built close
to fish pond to simplify handling of cow-manure.
GOAT-cum fish integration
It is considered as
poor man's cow and a goat's excreta is considered as a very good
organic fertilizer. The goat excreta contains organic carbon-60%,
N-2.7%, P-1.78%, K-2.88% and its urine is also equally rich in both
N & P. At least 50-60 goats are essential to fertilize 1 ha pond.
The goats should be provided with dry, safe, comfortable house
protected from excessive heat. The goat breeds are Jamanapari,
Beetal, Barbari for milk and Bengal, Sirihi, Deccani are used for
meat purpose. Goats are selective feeders and consume Berseem, Napier
grass, Cowpea Soybean, Mulberry etc. This integration can provide
3500-4000 kg fish/ha/year without supplementary feeding and
Rabbit meat is
preferred by most of the health conscious consumers owing to its low
fat in comparison to other meats. The important meat breeds are
Soviet Chinchilla, Grey Giant, and White Giant etc. Rabbits are
reared in cage, hutch and floor system (floor should be cemented).
Rabbit excreta contain organic carbon-50%, N-2%, P-1.33%, and K-1.2%.
The rabbit excreta is high in nitrogen content and low in moisture,
thus quality manure for sustained plankton production. It is
estimated that excreta from 300 rabbits would be enough for 1 ha pond
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P.L., 1998. Introduction to the Economics of Agricultural Production.
Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi.
A.M., 1994. Integrated fish farming with Makhana (Eurale
ferox) Fishing chimes
Seafood — Fish — Crustacea
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